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HISTORY

The Víking Era (793-~1100 CE)

HISTORICAL TIMELINE

This timeline is a work in progress. Eventually we hope to have links to articles and/or illustrations about all the events and personalities mentioned.

793 Norse raid and plunder monastary on isle of Lindisfarne.
794 Norse raid Jarrow in Northumbria.
795 First Norse raids on Scotland and Ireland.
799 Norse raid Aquitaine. 105 Norsemen killed by locals after their ships are blown off-course in northern Aquitaine.
800 Frankish King Charles the Great (Charlemagne) organizes defenses against Norse raids.
808 King Godfred King of Denmark sacks Slavic town of Reric; merchants moved to Hedeby. King Godfred of Denmark repairs and extends the Danevirke against possible Frankish aggression.
809 Papal legate captured by Norsemen in the North Sea while en route to Northumbria.
810 King Godfred of Denmark raids Frisia, is later killed.
820 Norse fleet is twice driven off by Franks before penetrating Aquitaine.
823-824 Archbishop Ebo of Reims undertakes missionary work in Denmark.
~825 Danes begin minting coinage at Hedeby. Irish monks are driven out of the Faeroe Islands.
829-830 Anagar undertakes missionary work in Svearland (Sweden), at Birka.
832 Norse raid Armagh three times in a single month.
834-837 Norse raid Dorestad every year.
837 Norse raid Frankish fort at Walcheren and slay or capture most of the Emperor's closest advisors.
839 Svear (Swedes) reach Constantiople.
839-840 Norse raiders winter in Ireland for the first time.
840 Armagh (center of the Irish church) is sacked three times.
841 Town of Dublin established by Norse. King Lothar grants province of Walcheren to Harald Klak.
842 Norse winter in France for the first time.
843 Norse attack Nantes.
843-885 Frisia under intermittent Danish rule.
844 Norse raid Spain for the first time, are driven off with heavy losses. King Raedwulf of Northumbria killed by Norsemen. Norsemen sack Lisbon. Norsemen sack Seville, but are defeated five weeks later by the Muslims and retreat.
845 Norse sack Hamburg and Paris; Franks pay first weregeld to Norse raiders. Turgeis is captured by King Mael Seachlainn of Meath and drowned in Lough Owel.
847 King Mael Seachlainn of Meath defeats Norse army south of Slane.
849 Irish sack Dublin.
850 Anagar builds first Christian churches at Ribe and Hedeby. Norse raiders winter in England for the first time. Norsemen defeated by Anglo-Saxons in naval battle off the coast of Sandwich. King Lothar grants province of Frisia to Roric.
851 Danes take Dublin.
852-854 Anagar undertakes missionary work in Svearland (Sweden).
853 Norse Kingdom of Dublin founded as Olaf and Ivar (from Norway) drive the Danes from the town.
854 Danish King Horik killed in civil war. Muslims capture two Norse ships off the coast of Cordoba.
858 Charles the Bald beseiges Vikings on the isle of Oissel, but the seige is lifted when his kingdom is invaded by his brother King Lothar.
859 Norsemen raid Algericas, burn mosque.
859-860 Vikings winter in the Camargue (southern France).
859-862 Norse raid Mediterranean lands, led by Bjorn Ironsides and Hastein.
860 Gardar the Swede mounts exploration of Iceland. Rus attack Constantinople. Hastein and Bjorn attack the Loire. Norsemen sack Luna, Italy. King Charles the Bald hires Weland to fight Norsemen on his behalf; he beseiges Norse forces on the Isle of Oissel-- they pay 6,000 pounds of silver as ransom; Weland is finally defeated by Anglo-Saxons at battle of Winchester. Gardar sights Iceland for the first time.
861 Muslim fleet defeats Norse fleet outside the Straights of Gibraltar while en route home.
862 Frankish King Charles (the Bald) fortifies rivers against Norse raiders. Rurik becomes King of Novgorod. Kiev is captured by Askold and Dir.
864 Count of Auvergne defeated and slain at the battle of Clermont. Rus sack Abasgun.
865 Great Army of the Danes invades England; East Anglia obtains peace by supplying horses to the Danes.
866 Norsemen rout Frankish army on the Seine River; King Charles the Bald pays them 4,000 pounds of silver to leave; they disperse to England and Frisia. Danes capture York.
867 Northumbrians attempt to recapture York, but are driven off. Mercians and West Saxons beseige the Danish camp at Nottingham, but the seige fails.
869 King Edmund of East Anglia is killed and slain at the battle of Hoxne. Norse under the command of Kjarval defeat Irish fleet off the Hebrides.
870 Initial Norse settlement of Iceland begins; a handful of Irish monks are driven out. Earldom of Orkney established. Danes capture East Anglia. Norse from Dublin destroy the capital of Strathclyde.
871 Alfred becomes King of Wessex.
873 King Charles of the Franks drives Norsemen from Angers. Danish Great Army captures Repton.
874 Danish Great Army divdes into two sections.
874-914 "Forty Years Rest" in Ireland.
875 Halfdan driven from Dublin by Norweigans.
876 Danish settlement of England begins. Halfdan sets up the Norse Kingdom of York.
877 Halfdan of York killed by Norweigans while trying to conquer Dublin.
878 King Alfred of Wessex defeats the Danes under Guthrum at the battle of Eddingon; the Danes agree to withdraw from Wessex. The Treaty of Wedmore establishes the Danelaw.
882 Novgorod and Kiev are united under Oleg. Franks defeated at the battle of Ascloha.
884 Forces under Sigfrid are paid 12,000 lbs. of silver to leave Amiens.
885 Harald Finehair wins battle of Hafrsfjord; begins unification of Norway. Norse begin Siege of Paris. Norse attack on Rochester is driven off by King Alfred of Wessex. Sigfrid's fleet arrives at the Seine.
886 King Alfred of Wessex recaptures London from the Danes. Siege of Paris ends as King Charles of the Franks allows them to pass upriver and ravage the countryside.
888 King Odo of the Franks defeats the Norse at the battle of Montfaucon. Norse at Chezy are paid Danegeld and begin to retreat from the Seine valley.
891 Arnulf defeats Norse at battle of the Dyle.
893 Norse unsuccessfully beseige Pilton and Exeter. Danish camp at Buttington is beseiged; Danes break out and retreat to East Anglia. Chester is captured by the Danes, who must move into Wales to replace their destroyed food stores.
895 Rollo arrives in Normandy.
896 Danish army in Mercia and Wessex disperses to East Anglia and Frankia.
899 King Alfred of Wessex dies.
~900 Harald Finehair completes unification of most of Norway. Norse begin settlement of northwest England.
902 Norse driven out of Dublin. West Saxons begin attack against the Danelaw.
907 Constantinople attacked by the Rus under Prince Oleg of Kiev.
910 16 Rus ships attack and pillage the Persian coast along the Caspian Sea.
911 Rollo founds Duchy of Normandy. Rollo unsuccessfully beseiges Chartres. Rus and Byzantium sign treaty.
912-913 Rus raiders active in Caspian Sea.
913 Rus fleet is ambushed and destroyed by Khazars at the battle of Itil.
914 Norse conquer Brittany.
917 Norse recapture Dublin. Danish defeated at Tempsford; king and garrison are slain. Danes unsuccessfully attack Towcester and Wiggingamere. Aethelfaed King of Mercia captures Derby from the Danes.
918 Ragnold defeats Northumbrians and Scots at the battle of Corbridge.
919 Rognold captures York. High King of Tara and twelve lesser kings are killed trying to drive the Norse from Dublin. Nantes made capital of Norse lands in Brittany.
922 Arab merchant Ibn Fadlan meets Rus slave traders.
924 Norse from Dublin attack Norse at Limerick, but are defeated.
927 King Athelstan of Wessex captures York, driving out Guthfrith. King Athelstan is recognized as supreme by Scots, Stathyclyde Britons, and Northumbrians.
930 Alþing established in Iceland. First sighting of Greenland by Gunnborn.
934 German King Heinrich (the Fowler) defeats Danes.
936 Duke Alan Barbertorte of Brittany invades Brittany to expel the Norse invaders; captures a party of Norsemen at a wedding at Dol and kills them; defeats Norse at the battle of Peran.
937 Norse-Scottish army under Olaf Guthfrithsson defeated by English under King Athelstan of Wessex at the battle of Brunanburh. King Olaf Sihtricsson of Dublin destroys fleet belonging to Norse of Limerick at Lake Ree. Norse are expelled from Brittany.
939 Olaf Guthfrithsson recaptures Kingdom of York.
940 King Edmund of Wessex cedes Five Boroughs to Olaf.
941 Rus unsuccessfully attack Constantinople under Igor and make treaty. King Muirchertach of northern Ui Néill, attacks the Hebrides in reprisal for Norse raids.
942 King Edmund of Wessex retakes the Five Boroughs. Norse settlers in Normandy begin pagan revival.
943 Rus capture Barda from Muslims, but retreat after an epidemic breaks out.
944 English recapture Kingdom of York.
948 Bishoprics established at Ribe, Hedeby, and Arhus. Erik Bloodaxe captures Kingdom of York, becomes King.
954 West Saxons conquer the Danelaw. Erik Bloodaxe killed at the battle of Stainmore. Final end of the Norse Kingdom of York.
958 Gorm the Old dies.
960 Danish control over Norway reestablished by Harald Bluetooth. Scots attempt to recapture Caithness, but are defeated.
964-971 Svyatoslav wars with Bulgars, Khazars, and Byzantines.
~965 Danes converted to Christianity by Harald Bluetooth.
968 Danevirk fortified against German aggression. King Mathghamain of Dal Cais conquers Limerick.
969 Norse recapture Limerick.
~970 Town of Sigtuna founded.
974-981 Germans occupy Hedeby.
980 Norse raids on England begin again. Varangian Guard formed at Constantinople. Dublin pays tribute to King Máel Sechnaill of Meath.
983 Erik the Red makes first voyage to Greenland.
985 First sighting of Vinland (North America) by Bjarni Herjolfsson.
986 Beginning of the settlement of Greenland by Erik the Red.
988 Prince Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity. Bishopric established at Odense.
989 Dublin pays tribute to King Máel Sechnaill of Meath.
991 Olaf Tryggvason defeats English at the battle of Maldon. Norse defeat ealdorman Byrhtnoth in East Anglica.
993 Danes attack London, but are driven off with heavy losses.
994 Olaf and Svein receive 16,000 lbs. of silver as Danegeld. King Æthelræd of England baptises Olaf.
995 Norway united under Olaf Tryggvason. Olaf Skötkonung first King of both Götar and Svear. Dublin pays tribute to King Máel Sechnaill of Meath.
997 Danes attack southern Wales and western Wessex.
998-999 Danes set up base on the Isle of Wight, begin raiding Sussex and Hampshire.
999 Dublin pays tribute to King Brian Boru of Munster.
1000 Iceland converts to Christianity. First explorations of Vinland begin under Leif Eriksson. King Æthelræd of England attacks the Isle of Man in reprisal for Norse raids.
1001 Danes attack southern Wessex, defeating the Saxons at Pinhoe and Dean.
1002 Svein Forkbeard attacks England from Normandy.
1007 Svein Forkbeard defeats Saxons at the battle of East Kennet, continues his march to the sea.
1009 English fleet divided by dissention, Danes land at Sandwich unopposed. Danes under Thorkell raids Hampshire, Sussex, and Berkshire.
1010 Danes under Thorkell raid East Anglia and Mercia.
1013 Norse army fights under King Richard II of England against the Count of Chartres. Svein Forkbeard conquers Northumbria, Winchester, London, the Five Burroughs, and the West Country. King Æthelræd of England flees to Normandy.
1014 Leinster and Norse army is defeated by King Brian Boru of Munster at the battle of Contarf; Jarl Sigurd and King Brodir of Man are killed. Svein Forkbeard dies, and King Æthelræd of England returns. Last Norse attack on Brittany.
1015 Norway conquered by Olaf Haraldsson.
1016 Danes attack London, but are driven off.
1016-1035 Cnut is King of England.
1030 Olaf Haraldsson killed at the battle of Stiklestad. Jarl Thorfin of Orkney gains control over most of northern Scotland at the battle of Tarbet Ness.
1035 Scots attempt to retake northern Scotland, but are defeated by Jarl Thorfin.
1041 Ingvar the Widefarer travels in Serkland, attempts to re-open trade routes; he is killed somewhere in central Asia.
1042 Danish rule ends in England.
1043 Wends defeated by Magnus the Good at the battle of Lyrskov Heath.
1045 Last attack on Constantinople by the Rus.
1047-1067 War between Harald Hardrada of Norway and Svein Estrithson of Denmark.
~1050 Bishopric established in Orkney.
1066 Harald Hardrada killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge. William the Conquerer wins the battle of Hastings.
1069 Svein Estrithson invades England.
1071 Norman Kingdom of Sicily established.
1075 Last Danish invasion of England; Danes sack York.
1079 Godred Crovan unites the Isle of Man and the Hebrides at the battle of Skyhill.
1085 First grant of land to Christian church in Scandinavia. Cnut IV abandons planned invasion of England.
1095 King Malcolm Canmore of Scotland recognizes Norweigan control over the Hebrides.
1098 King Magnus Barelegs of Norway takes over the Kingdom of Man and the Hebredies.
1104 King Magnus Barelegs of Norway killed while raiding Ulster.

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